Here we can see about the Agriculture Industry in India and Their top Export and import. India is the largest producer of spices, pulses, milk, tea, cashew, and jute. The second-largest producer of wheat, rice, fruits and vegetables, sugarcane, cotton, and oilseeds. India has the tenth-largest arable land resources in the world. It is also the largest producer, consumer, and exporter of spices and spice products.
About Indian Agriculture [agriculture industry in India]
With 20 agro-climatic regions, all 15 major climates in the world exist in India. The country also possesses 46 of the 60 soil types in the world. Agriculture contributes about 54.6% of the total workforce and allied sector activities. Accounts for 16% of the country’s Gross Value Added (GVA) for the year 2019. There has been a continuous decline in the share of agriculture. Decline in GVA from 18.2 percent in 2015 to 16.0 percent in 2019.
Gross Capital Formation (GCF) in agriculture relative to the GVA trend from 17.7 percent in 2014 to 15.2 percent in 2018.
Agriculture Industry in India is the second-largest producer of paddy in the world after China. India’s paddy yield increased 2.5x over 56 years to 2017. In 2018-19, food grain production in India was estimated at 283.37 million tonnes compared to 277.49 in the previous fiscal.
Form Land in India
As per the Land Use Statistics 2014- 15, the total geographical area of the country is 328.7 million hectares, of which 140.1 million hectares is the reported net sown area and 198.4 million hectares is the gross cropped area with a cropping intensity of 142%. The net area sown works out to be 43% of the total geographical area. The net irrigated area is 68.4 million hectares.
Over 45 years the number of farms in India more than doubled from 71 million in 1971 to 145 million in 2016, while the average farm size more than halved from 2.28 hectares to 1.08 hectares. 86% of India’s farmers are categorized as ‘small and marginal’, meaning they own less than 2 hectares
India Agriculture Compares with The World
In 2017, 18% of Chinese were employed in agriculture compared to 43% of Indians, according to World Bank data. Over 26 years till 2017, the proportion fell 37 bps in China, while in India it fell 21 bps, keeping India above the world average of 26.4% of people employed in agriculture. India’s spending on agriculture research (as a percentage of agriculture GDP) is 0.3%. China, the US, Brazil, and South Africa spent 2x, 4x, 6x and 10x more than India [agriculture industry in India], respectively.
Production in Agriculture
As per 2nd Advance Estimates for 2018-19, total foodgrain production in the country is estimated at 281.37 million tonnes which is lower by 3.46 million tonnes than the production of foodgrain of 284.83 million tonnes achieved during 2017-18 (as per 4th Advance Estimates). However, the production during 2018-19 is higher by 15.63 million tonnes than the previous five years’ (2013-14 to 2017-18) average production of foodgrain.
The total production of rice during 2018-19 is estimated at a record of 115.60 million tonnes. Production of rice has increased by 2.69 million tonnes than the production of 112.91 million tonnes during 2017-18. It is also higher by 7.80 million tonnes than the five years’ average production of 107.80 million tonnes.
Production of Wheat
Production of wheat lower by 0.58 million tonnes as compared to wheat production of 99.70 million tonnes achieved during 2017-18. However, the production of wheat during 2018-19 is higher by 4.51 million tonnes than the average (2013-14 to 2017-18) wheat production of 94.61 million tonnes.
Production of Nutri
Production of Nutri / coarse cereals estimated at 42.64 million tonnes is lower by 4.35 million tonnes than the production of 46.99 million tonnes achieved during 2017-18. Further, it is also lower by 0.45 million tonnes than the average production. Total pulses production during 2018-19 is estimated at 24.02 million tonnes which is lower by 1.21 million tonnes than the previous year’s production of 25.23 million tonnes. However, the production of pulses during 2018-19 is higher by 3.77 million tonnes than the five years’ (2013-14 to 2017-18) average production of 20.26 million tonnes.
Production of Oilseeds
Total oilseeds production in the country during 2018-19 is estimated at 31.50 million tonnes which is marginally higher than the production of 31.31 million tonnes during 2017-18. However, the production of oilseeds during 2018-19 is higher by 1.85 million tonnes than the average oilseeds production. With an increase by 3.93 million tonnes over 2017-18.
Production of Sugarcane
The total production of sugarcane in the country during 2018-19 is estimated at 380.83 million tonnes. However, the production of sugarcane during 2018- 19 is higher by 31.05 million tonnes than the average (2013-14 to 2017-18) sugarcane production of 349.78 million tonnes.
The Production of cotton in 2018-19 (as per 2nd Advance Estimates) is estimated at 30.09 million bales (of 170 kg each) which is lower than the production of 34.89 million bales during 2017-18. Production of Jute & Mesta estimated at 10.07 million bales (of 180 kg each) is marginally lower than their production during 2017-18.
The wide and varied nature of the horticulture Sector covering fruits, vegetables, root and tuber crops, flowers, aromatics, and medicinal crops, spices, and plantation crops facilitates better returns per unit of the area besides opportunities for diversification in agriculture.
Horticulture crops cover an area of 25.87 million ha (m. Ha.) at present by registering an increase of about 28% as compared to 20.20 m. ha in 2007-08. However, with a production of about 314.67 million MT, horticulture production has witnessed an increase of about 49% during the period 2007-08 to 2018-19 (1st Advance Estimate). The significant feature is that there has been an improvement in the productivity of horticulture crops, which increased by about 16.32% during this period.
Agriculture Industry in India has retained its status as the second-largest producer of fruits in the World. The country is first in the Production of fruits like Mango, Banana, Sapota, Pomegranate, and Aonla. Vegetables are an important crop in the horticulture sector, occupying an area of 10.44 million ha as of 2018-19 (1st Advance Estimate) with a total production of 187.47 million tonnes with average productivity of 17.96 tonnes/ha. In fact, vegetables constitute about 59.15% of horticulture production. During the period 2007-08 to 2018-19 (1st Advance Estimate), area and production of vegetables increased by 32.98% and 45.95% respectively.
Agriculture as a Business
The income of beneficiaries has gone up from Rs. 1,08,000/ to Rs. 8,20,000/ though the total cost of cultivation & Cost/Tonnes has increased simultaneously.